Popouts are marks in the surface, usually caused when porous aggregates absorb water quickly and expand when they experience freeze-thaw cycles.
Concrete is composed of Portland cement, aggregate, and water. In most cases, additives and structural reinforcement such as fiber or steel wire are needed to strengthen the concrete from cracking and shattering. When these materials are mixed together they form a solid stone-like surface used for sidewalks, driveways, and other rigid surfaces or structures.
Frost heaving occurs when the ground moisture underneath the stone base freezes and then lifts certain parts of the concrete slab instead of the entire structure.
Adding to much water to concrete can cause several surface defects. Water should be added only once, if needed, to restore slump when concrete arrives to the jobsite.
Cracking mainly occurs as a result of load distress or the expansion and contraction that concrete experiences throughout the different seasons.
Spalling is a loss of the surface Portland cement that exposes the course aggregate. It is caused by freeze-thaw cycles and deicing salts.
Structural Failures Common with Concrete
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